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Grammar & Structure  » Giriş Konuları-Yan Cümle ve Cümle Yapıları

Clause and sentence structure 

Önemli Başlıklar
1-) Basit Cümle yapısında yanlızca bir alt cümle vardır.
2-) Cümleler genellikle bir isim tamlamasından oluşan özne grubu ve fiil grubundan oluşur.
3-) Cümleler aynı zamanda nesne ya da tamlama olarak kullanılacak başka bir isim tamlamasına da sahip olabilir.
4-) Cümleler aynı zamanda zarflarada shaip olabilirler.
5-) Cümle içinde kelimelerin yerini, sıralamasını değiştirmek anlamı değiştirebilir.
6-) Bileşik Cümleler 2 ya da daha fazla ana cümleden oluşur. Kompleks Cümleler de ise bir ya da birden fazla ana cümle ve bir ya da birden fazla alt cümlden oluşur. 
1-) A simple sentence has one clause, beginning with a noun group called the subject. The subject is the person or thing that the sentence is about. This is followed by a verb group, which tells you what the subject is doing, or describes the subject’s situation.
* I waited.
* The girl screamed.
2-) The verb group may be followed by another noun group, which is called the object. The object is the person or thing affected by the action or situation.
* He opened the car door.
* She married a young engineer.
After link verbs like ‘be’, ‘become’, ‘feel, and ‘seem’, the verb group may be followed by a noun group or an adjective, called a complement. The complement tells you more about the subject.
* She was a doctor.
* He was angry.
3-) The verb group, the object, or the complement can be followed by an adverb or a prepositional phrase, called an adverbial. The adverbial tells you more about the action or situation, for example how, when, or where it happens. Adverbials are also called adjuncts.
* They shouted loudly.
* She won the competition last week.
* He was a policeman in Birmingham.
4-) The word order of a clause is different when the clause is a statement, a question, or a command.
* He speaks English very well. (statement)
* Did she win at the Olympics? (question)
* Stop her. (command)
Note that the subject is omitted in commands, so the verb comes first.
5-) A compound sentence has two or more main clauses: that is, clauses which are equally important. You join them with ‘and’, ‘but’, or ‘or’.
* He met Jane at the station and went shopping.
* I wanted to go buti felt too ill.
* You can come now or you can meet us there later.
Note that the order of the two clauses can change the meaning of the sentence.
* He went shopping and met Jane at the station.
If the subject of both clauses is the same, you usually omit the subject in the second clause.
* I wanted to go but felt too ill.
6-) A complex sentence contains a subordinate clause and at least one main clause. A subordinate clause gives information about a main clause, and is introduced by a conjunction such as ‘because’, if’, ‘that’, or a wh’-word. Subordinate clauses can come before, after, or inside the main clause.
* When he stopped, no one said anything. If you want, I’ll teach you.
 * They were going by car because it was more comfortable.
* I told him that nothing was going to happen to me.
* The car that / drove was a Ford.
* The man who came into the room was small.
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